Acoma Pronunciation Guide

In this first part of the pronunciation guide, we will focus on most of the consonants, shown in the chart below..

These consonants can be organized in the following way, taken from the Acoma Topical Dictionary. It is not something to be memorized, but gives you an idea where and how these sounds are produced in the mouth.

lips tongue-tip palatal or "flat" retroflex or "R" back
Stops
breathy p t ty k
glottal p' t' ty' k'
plain b d dy g
Affricates
breathy ts ch tr
glottal ts' ch' tr'
plain dz j dr
S-sounds
plain s sh sr
glottal s' sh' sr'

We will practice these sounds row by row, going from left to right. We will provide words which contain the sound in syllables, and in various positions within an Acoma word. In Acoma, a syllable often starts with a consonant such as the ones we will illustrate, followed by a vowel, long or short.

The Stops

The sound p:  pa, pe, pi, pu, pv  or  paa, pee, pii, puu, pvv

This is the English p as in Pat, pet, pick, or put.

pa

hàapani

oak

pa

pâani

sack

pe

péetrạ

jackrabbit

pe

chʾúpẹ

eat!

pi

ípịshʾa

whitewash

pi

pishv́vná

purple

pi

tsʾâapị

fly

pu

ápụ

cherry

pu

pûubé

tell him/her!

pu

púnv́kʾvtsạ

yank it

pv

hámapvdá

sometime

pv

sʾépṿkadá

I used it all

pv

sʾípṿtrạ

I shook out a blanket, cloth

The sound t:  ta, te, ti, tu, tv  or  taa, tee, tii, tuu, tvv

This is close to the English t as in tack, tear, tick, or took.

ta

kutáanʾítrạ

s/he is working

ta

tâanʾi

work

ta

pûitawa

understand!

te

chúwiteeʾé

s/he went asking for it

te

téeʾe

far

ti

kʾúutị

mountain

ti

tíiyʾaani

potato

tu

tudâatsị

priest

tv

tv́rv́rv́gá

automobile

The sound ty: tya, tyu, tyv  or  tyaa, tyuu, tyvv

This is a sound similar to the t of tune, tube in some varieties of English.  It should not be confused with the sound ch.  Note that what speakers hear as tyi and tye will be spelled ti and te.

tya

cháatyạ

outside

tya

chʾv́tyạdzí

stop!

tyu

sʾáutyụ

I am aware of it

tyu

tyukîitsị

s/he sinned

tyv

dyvtʾàatyṿ

s/he stood up

tyv

dzíitʾityvvtsịtạ

did you get kicked/stepped on?

tyv

míshtyṿtsị

it is black

The sound k: ka, ke, ki, ku, kv  or  kaa, kee, kii, kuu, kvv

This is the sound of the English k or c as in cot, Kate, kit, coot.

ka

káasháatsị

carrots

ka

kʾákana

wolf

kee

nʾakèe

go ahead!

ki

kínátị

fresh, ripe corn

ki

kisá

stew

ku

kuháya

bear

ku

kúukụ

winter

kuu

kúukûupạ

owl

kv

kv̂vgáni

it is red

kv

kv̂vkvvkạ

it is glowing (as coals)

The sound p’: pʾa, pʾe, pʾi, pʾu, pʾv  or  pʾaa, pʾee, pʾii, pʾuu, pʾvv

This is similar to the Acoma sound b, but with a faint pop following it.  The sounds followed by the apostrophe are called ‘glottal’, Glottal sounds need to be heard from Native speakers and require some practice.  One way of learning to pronounce p’a…  would be to start with ba’a…  where the apostrophe stands for the glottal stop we have in English  uh(’)uh ‘no!’ or uh(’)oh!.  Then the speaker works his/her way to b’a…  (written p’a…) Note that the syllables pʾu and pʾv are rare, if they exist at all.

pʾa

pʾákuri

salamander (or pʾákura)

pʾe

pʾêeyutiuʾumʾá

s/he wanted them (dl) to go

pʾe

pʾe pʾétʾátsị

it cracked, it is cracked

pʾe

sʾîupʾéenʾa

we (pl) told him/her

pʾi

kʾawíishpʾíiyi

canal channel, little arroyo

pʾi

púupʾíinʾatsạ

give him/her a massage

pʾv

âapʾvkʾáakʾátsị

nail

The sound t’: tʾa, tʾe, tʾi, tʾu, tʾv  or  tʾaa, tʾee, tʾii, tʾuu, tʾvv

This is similar to the Acoma sound d, but with a faint pop following it. See advice under the sound p’. Note that what speakers hear as ty’i and ty’e will be spelled t’i and t’e.  There are no words beginning with the syllable tʾv.

t'u

sáatʾúwiikụ

s/he let it go

tʾa

tʾáyakạ

s/he got fired

tʾe

tʾêeyu

they (2) left

tʾi

kutʾíikʾúsị

scissors

tʾi

tʾîitrạ

spring

The sound ty’: ty’a, ty’u  or  ty’aa, ty’uu

This is similar to the Acoma sound dy, but with a faint pop following it. See advice under the sound p’. Note that the syllable tyʾv does not appear to exist.

The sound k’: kʾa, kʾe, kʾi, kʾu, kʾv  or  kʾaa, kʾee, kʾii, kʾuu, kʾvv

This is similar to the Acoma sound g, but with a faint pop following it. See advice under the sound p’.

k'a

kʾá

it is his/hers

k'a

kʾàashị

it is his/hers

k'a

kʾádzá

s/he is talking

k'a

úusrkʾatị

drinking vessel

k'e

íshkʾé

one

k'e

kʾéeʾéesị

over again

k'e

yvkʾée

that way

k'i

pikʾíkʾi

bat

k'i

sʾáukʾîini

my friend

k'i

úuyâasikʾíiná

gourd rattle

k'u

Háakʾu

Acoma pueblo

k'u

kukʾúmishị

eight

k'u

kʾúutị

mountain

k'u

kʾúwìi dzá

itʾs a girl

k'v

kâisrkʾv̀vʾvtrại

s/he turned away

k'v

kʾv́trṿ

tight

kʾui

sʾâukʾui

my wife

The sound b: ba, be, bi, bu, bv  or  baa, bee, bii, buu, bvv

This is not the English sound of bat, bit, boot, etc. but is closer to the English p in spot, spit, spook. It is also the same as the Spanish p. Note that there seem to be no words ending in -bu or -bv.

ba

dzíibâatʾáatʾa

s/he is sleepy

ba

bâasrụ

excuse me

ba

báhá

bread

ba

nábàashtị

spider web

ba

yâasrbátạwé

mud

be

béreretsị

it is smooth, slippery

be

úbéwí

food

be

dyúubèetsạ

she beat them (at a race)

be

gàibé

s/he is a liar

be

gùubé

s/he is telling him/her

be

bêerụ

Pedro, Peter

bi

kʾabíhí

his/her female in-law

bi

bíishbíiná

bird

bi

bîishtị

sit still, behave!

bi

bíyáa tsʾîikại

s/he is lopsided

bi

tabínúsrka

horned lizard, horny toad

bi

yʾáabísị

stiff grass (used in broom or comb)

bu

dáabûupụ

Pueblo governor

bu

habûushʾa

wool

bu

búukạ

it collapsed

bu

búurʾàikạ

butterfly

bu

wabúuri

train

bv

kâubv́vnatsịtạ

s/he is sewing

bv

bv́námí

West

bv

bv̀vtsị

convex

bv

tsʾéebv́na

it is bitter

bv

wʾàabv́ni

sea shell

The sound d: da, de, di, du, dv  or  daa, dee, dii, duu, dvv

This is not the English sound of date, did, do, etc. but is closer to the English t in stock, stick, stood. It is also the same as the Spanish t. Note that what speakers hear as dyi and dye will be spelled di and de. There seem to be no words ending in the syllable -du. Only one word appears to have the syllable dv in it: vdv́vʾv ‘it is hot’.

da

dáabûupụ

something leftover

da

dâani

squash, pumpkin

da

dâaparu

shawl

da

Dámáyá

Santa Ana Pueblo

da

dzîiʾasrkvdá

s/he straddled (on anything

da

chûudá

plum

de

dêetyạ

rabbit

de

déntạ

store

de

mandêekạ

lard

de

mv́vdé

boy

de

adéemʾaadzá

it is dirty

di

chʾv́vdigá

sparrow hawk, American kestrel

di

dídí

from the north

di

díibàatụ

s/he went to sleep

di

díikạ

redwood tree, red cedar

di

díya

dog

di

úunádíishtị

clothing

du

dûura

bull

du

duuwʾée

this way (direction)

du

âi sínv tsidûutʾàaya

s/he is hanging it up

du

kadúwi

cliff

dv

vdv́v mʾàadzá

it is hot (weather)

The sound dy:  dya, dyu, dyv  or  dyaa, dyuu, dyvv

This is similar to the d of duty in some English varieties. Note: there are very few words with the syllable dyv.

dya

dyáamí

bald eagle, golden eagle

dya

dyâana

four

dya

dyáatyụ

bobcat

dya

dyaʾáu

granddaughter (female speaking), also grandmother

dya

dyáni

deer

dya

sʾídyá

I caught it, I grabbed it, I touched it

dya

chaʾáudyàatrạ

he (not she) got married

dya

dzíidyánâawịtạ

s/he is laughing

dya

chumʾáadyá

he/she gathers, collects

dyu

dyúu

two (archaic)

dyu

dyûuni

pottery

dyu

dyúupị

badger

dyu

dyúutʾigú

it looks good; does it look good?

dyu

dyùutuunímʾasạ

do they know?, are they aware?

dyu

dzíudyúwitsạ

s/he hit him/her (with fist only)

dyu

gâudyútsʾishị

fatty covering of the stomach of an animal

dyu

héemʾèedyú

s/he quit or s/he stopped

dyu

dyûutsʾitịshtạ

think of

dyu

sʾúudyúmé

I am having a hard time

dyv

dyv́námí

upward/up

dyv

dyv̂vgáni

s/he is slow (physically)

dyv

dyv́vsrạ

moose, elk for some speakers

dyv

sráudyv̂vtʾéepṿtyṿni

get up! (pl command)

dyv

kídyv̂vtsạ

s/he stretched him/herself

The sound g: ga, ge, gi, gu, gv  or  gaa, gee, gii, guu, gvv

This is not the English sound of gate, get, good, etc. but is closer to the English k in sky, skit, sketch. It is also the same as the Spanish c of casa. Note that the syllables ge and gi occur only in Spanish loanwords.

ga

áigáyámi

brakes

ga

gaʾáu

sister

ga

gáayúudzé

in the morning

ga

gánami

beans

ga

shdishdígá

cricket

ga

sʾugáyá

I got stuck

ge

géesụ

cheese

ge

arawagêekị

Albuquerque

ge

wagêera

cowboy

gi

mantạgîiyạ

butter

gu

gâagútʾụ

it is ripe

gu

gùutsị

wood

gu

guwʾáadzí

hello

gu

arawagú

apricot

gu

tsigûuʾu

she is pregnant

gv

gv́nʾa

wind

gv

gv́nʾatsị

weeds

gv

mâagv́

young girl

gv

agv́trṿtsị

flower

gv

wágv́ni

his/her clothes

The Affricates

The sound ts:  tsa, tse, tsi, tsu  or   tsaa, tsee, tsii, tsuu

This is similar to the ts in eats or cats. Note that there are no words starting in tse-, and not words ending in -tsu. There appears to be no syllable tsv in Acoma.

tsa

kútsá

s/he is tanning a hide

tsa

tsàashdí

collared lizard

tsa

tsâatsàakạ

s/he is breathing

tsa

tsáyá

first

tsa

âi díumàatsaní

s/he helped him/her

tse

dzíyùutseeyánʾa

they are carrying it

tse

nʾíyûutsegú

she will take it

tsi

áabûutsị

snakeweed

tsi

dyàitsị

pinyon pine

tsi

dyv̂vtsịsrụ

always

tsi

nàatsị

new

tsi

srpátạtsị

damp

tsi

tsibá

there is a fire

tsi

tsígútʾîimạ

bridge

tsi

tsínʾa

turkey

tsu

nʾáutitsùutsadyv́

s/he is moving out

tsu

petsûutị

pig

tsu

tsúshkị

coyote

The sound ch: cha, chi, chu, chv  or  chaa, chii, chuu, chvv

This is very similar to the English ch as in chocolate, chat, check, cheer.  There appears to be no syllable che in Acoma. There are no words ending in chi, except the Spanish loan Kumánchị  ‘Comanche’, and no words ending in chu, except the Spanish loan rânchụ  ‘ranch’.

cha

gáachàatrạ

s/he listened

cha

gv́cháni

s/he is standing

cha

káachà

it is raining

cha

kuchání

as she fell

cha

nâachámá

tomorrow

cha

sìukạchạ

I saw it

cha

cháatyạ

outside

cha

chameʾé

three

chi

Kumánchị

Comanche

chi

kʾúuchíni

it is yellow

chi

chidráachúwa

s/he has woken up

chi

chíshé

Apache

chi

yʾáachínʾi

corn kernels

chu

chûudá

plum

chu

chuwʾîitita

did s/he make it?

chu

gúichúma

flood

chu

ránchụ

ranch

chu

chʾádráachuwa

wake up!

chu

chúpẹ

did s/he eat?

chu

chùutyạ

s/he burped

chv

tsʾáiyachv́nị

it burned

chv

chv́nʾá

river

chv

chv̂vnʾa

gopher, mole

chv

chv̂vri

chile

chv

ichv́ni

building, house

chv

kaʾáchv́kʾaya

his/her armpit

chv

tarâachṿ

pick ax

chv

tsíchṿ

it is big

The sound tr: tra, tru, trv  or  traa, truu, trvv

This sound is rather similar to the English tr in try, track, trick, troops. Note that no “retroflex” sound can be followed by the vowels e or i, so tre and tri are impossible syllables in Acoma. Also, the syllable trv- does not occur at the beginning of a word.

tra

gûutràachʾa

s/he fell off it

tra

íyʾatrạ

child

tra

kaʾítrawa

they vanished / got lost

tra

traká

traká

tra

tsʾáaʾatraanishị

wall

tru

dzátịtruwími

s/he threw it

tru

eʾétrú

did you go?

tru

gâitrụ

did it stop raining?

tru

púwátrṿshạ

stir it!

tru

trudrúuchʾûutsị

are you willing to go

trv

díya gâatrṿtyạ

their house

trv

kʾáatrṿ

her husband

trv

kátrṿkạ

s/he is smoking

trv

tsʾítrṿ

it is long

The sound ts’:  ts’a, ts’e, ts’i, ts’u, ts’v  or  ts’aa, ts’ee, ts’ii, ts’uu, ts’vv

This is similar to the Acoma sound dz, followed by a faint “glottal” pop.  There appear to be no words ending in -tsʾe and in -ts’u.

ts'a

dràatsʾá

it (hand, foot) went to sleep

ts'a

kʾáatsʾàakụ

it (liquid) is lessening

ts'a

kúupàashtyuwítsʾa

ditch

ts'a

tsʾâakụ

s/he bit him/her/it

ts'a

tsʾâapị

house fly

ts'a

tsʾáasrguni

when it is daytime

ts'a

chútsʾayawa

s/he got mad

ts'e

kautsʾêenatsịtạ

s/he chewed it

ts'e

pesétsʾera

bedbug

ts'e

tsʾèeyu

they went

ts'e

tsʾérarv́tsị

it is greasy

ts'i

gáwítsʾi

chest

ts'i

gûutsʾímv

s/he loved him/her

ts'i

hâatsʾi

land

ts'i

háyáatsʾi

fall, autumn

ts'i

kʾátsị

it is deep

ts'i

tsʾîipáni

it is dry

ts'i

tsʾítsị

water

ts'u

gúutsʾùutsạ

s/he kissed him/her

ts'u

mágútsʾuyʾúuná

tamale

ts'u

tsʾúkʾu

twins

ts'u

tsʾúyʾútsị

shallow groove, small dip

ts’v

hatsʾv́yáwá

how many times

ts’v

châubv́vtsʾvtsạ

s/he plowed

ts’v

tsʾv́vwʾera

slug

ts’v

úutsʾv́vdrv́tsị

a saw

ts’v

kâutsʾv̂vtrṿtsịtạ

s/he cut it

The sound ch’: ch’a, ch’i, ch’u, ch’v  or  ch’aa, ch’ii, ch’uu, ch’vv

This is similar to the Acoma sound j, followed by a faint “glottal’ pop.  There appear to be no words with the syllable ch’e.  The syllable chʾi is quite rare and does not occur in the middle or at the end of a word; chʾu is also rare except as a second person hortative prefix.  It does not occur word-finally.  The syllable chʾv has been found in one word only:  chʾv́vdígá  ‘sparrowhawk, American kestrel’.  

ch'a

dzâachʾa

his/her tooth

ch'a

gáumʾúchʾa

his/her buttocks

ch'a

kaʾâuchʾàakụ

s/he is dividing it (among people)

ch'a

kʾée gúuchʾàakụ

s/he is drawing a line

ch'a

chʾá

s/he had it

ch'i

chʾíbâitsạ

speed it up! run faster!

ch'i

chʾídyv̂vtsạ

bend back!

ch'u

gáuchʾùutsị

s/he is willing

ch'u

sʾúuchʾùutsị

I volunteered

ch'u

chʾubáya

build the fire!

ch'u

chʾúpẹ

eat!

ch'u

chʾùukúyʾa

take them!

ch’v

chʾv́vdígá

sparrowhawk, American kestrel

The sound tr’: tr’a, tr’u or  tr’aa, tr’uu, tr’vv 

This is similar to the Acoma sound dr, followed by a faint “glottal’ pop. Note that no “retroflex” sound, can be followed by the vowels e or i, so tr’e and tr’i are impossible syllables in Acoma.  Also, there are no words with the syllable tr’v, and there appear to be no words ending in the syllable -trʾa.

tr'a

báamí trʾàatạ

donʾt cry (to pl.)

tr'a

kṿtrʾáanʾa

you (pl) said it

tr'a

nvtrʾâashị dyûusạ

it will belong to them

The sound dz: dza, dze, dzi, dzu  or  dzaa, dzee, dzii, dzuu

This is similar to the dz in the English word adze.  There are no words with the syllable dzv, and there appear to be no words ending in the syllable -dzu.

dza

dzá

no

dza

dzáadzí

not

dza

dzàatị

s/he has teeth

dza

hashtîidzá

old man

dza

kʾádzá

s/he is talking

dza

kʾúuyàudzá

old woman

dza

mv́vdêedzá

young boy

dze

dzêeni

language

dze

dzêeshtàaya

it is windy

dze

dzêewâanʾi

joke

dze

gáidzêeshʾáatʾa

s/he dreamed

dze

hamʾáadzé

ancient

dze

kʾúidzé

what kind is it?

dze

máatịsíidzé

on Tuesday

dzi

dzíi

what?

dzi

dzíidra

s/he is wishing

dzi

dzíkaná

again

dzi

dzítạpṿ

forest

dzi

guwʾáadzí

hello

dzi

héeyʾa gàadzíya

they are talking about it

dzi

kuchʾáyàadzími

when he/she breaks a fast

dzi

chaʾâidzímʾvtyṿ

they (dl) went to bed

dzi

úwíidzími

cradleboard

dzu

kâidzúwa

s/he paid it

dzu

srâidzúwịtạ

payment

The sound j:  ja, je, ji, ju, jv  or   jaa, jee, jii, juu, jvv

This is similar to the English j in Jack, jog, judge, June.  Words with j are very rare and occur mostly in Spanish and English loanwords.

ja

jâapạ

padlock

ja

jachʾáaná

Asian

je

jêekị

check

ji

jîinùudzá kusêeʾe

she has curly hair

ji

kujîinu

pig

ji

wajíiri

vest

ju

jíijìi

sibling of the opposite sex

ju

kujûuna

mattress

The sound dr:  dra, dru, drv  or  draa, druu, drvv

This is similar to the English sound in drag, drink, droop. Note that no “retroflex” sound, can be followed by the vowels e or i, so dre and dri are impossible syllables in Acoma.

dra

díidrá

s/he wished for it

dra

dràasrkʾá

my body went to sleep, is numb

dra

gaʾídrámashtʾu

they are hungry

dra

gâidrátyụ

they (pl) passed by

dra

nâidrá

thank you (said by women after eating)

dru

chʾáaʾáshtʾudrú

get down on your knees

dru

úuwʾaidrúpịtsị

to make rows

dru

chúishʾàashdvdrú

s/he bent over

dru

drukʾáwá

willow

dru

drúpịtsṿ

cylinder

dru

bv́drúwishtị

electricity

dru

bv́drúnʾa

along the edge, baseboard

drv

drv́drv́tyʾau

along the edge

drv

drv́vmʾa

short time

drv

drv́vsíshṿ

small

drv

kvdrv́trṿtsị

pink

drv

shʾádrv́v

fast, hurry

drv

úutsʾv́vdrv́tsị

cutter (as a wire cutter)

The S-Sounds

The sound s: sa, se, si, su, sv  or  saa, see, sii, suu, svv

In Acoma, the sound written s sounds remarkably different from an English, Navajo, American Spanish or Laguna s. The learner needs to hear it from a speaker. In technical terms, Miller (1959:148), states that “s is followed by a theta offglide, [sθ]”. In his grammar, Miller (1965:13) also states that the “dental sibilants are followed by a theta offglide.” In our experience, and in modern Acoma, Miller’s dental sibilants, i.e. s and s’ are not dental, but are rather an alveopalatal fricative without lip rounding immediately followed by a postdental fricative, i.e. IPA [ʃθ]. The combination is pronounced rather lenis and short. It sometimes sounds to the English ear like the Acoma cluster shd. The sound s is used not only in etymologically Acoma words, but in Spanish and English loanwords as well. Oddly enough, the dissertation by Maring (1967:8-9) says nothing about this uncommon pronunciation of the s.

sa

dzíwaasá

he is sick

sa

áasạ

pan

sa

îisạ

excrement

sa

kâusâapạtsịtạ

s/he is pounding it

sa

kusáwatsạ

sudden downpour

sa

pisâari

blanket

sa

sáawáka

money

sa

sabv́

back from the west

sa

sántụ

saint

sa

sátịtrúwi

I threw it

se

ésụʾésụsẹ

I am sneezing

se

hâunʾv dzíisé

s/he is putting it (liquid) in a container

se

hûuseni

feathers

se

kusêeʾe

s/he has hair

se

sendâawa

cent

se

sesêegá

chimney swallow

se

úuséenʾi

container for liquid

se

sèetịkuya

I am crying

se

séechàatrạ

I am listening

se

sêenatruteya

I walk

si

tsíusíkʾitsạ

it is folded (as paper)

si

kʾáasìiwʾitsị

rattle (of the snake)

si

kásí

her breast

si

síiʾi

ant

si

síityạ

squirrel

si

sikʾíkʾikạ

it is rattling

si

sínani

flesh

si

tsìisipạ

his/her eyelashes

su

dísúmʾêeshtiya

they taught him/her

su

géesụ

cheese

su

gúsú báha úuwitraanʾi

she knows how to make bread

su

gúudâakʾaatyụsụ

she is uncovering it

su

asúukarị

sugar

su

súusîushtyạ

I went into debt

su

súwá

yesterday

su

suwatʾáikuiʾi

we hauled it

su

súuwʾaish'áwatsa

I swim

sv

drv́vkʾásṿkạ

the room is narrow

sv

âinʾv sʾípvnaisṿ

I am putting it in

sv

dzíutsʾaipṿsṿ

s/he is getting better, healing

sv

kúwasṿtị

wing of a bird]

sv

sv́na

middle

sv

svtâanʾitrạ

I am working

sv

Sv̂vni

Zuni Indian

sv

sv̀vtsi tsíyâani

s/he is destructive

The sound sh: sha, she, shi, shu, shv  or shaa, shee, shii, shuu, shvv

This is similar to the English sh in shot, sheet, shed, shoot.

sha

shʾámv

wild celery

sha

dâaʾatiishá

she fed them

sha

dyùukáshạ

she stepped up

sha

íshâani

meat

sha

kʾàishaatrạ

skunk

sha

ashánʾi

a step

sha

sʾasháakʾu

my pipe

she

áitʾíshéeyutsạ

childrenʾs slide

she

gúwʾâashéerʾutsịtạ

s/he is grating

she

kashéeshị

white corn

she

shényâu

s/he is clumsy, unskillful

she

chíshé

Apache

shi

gàashiyawa

they won

shi

gâibêeshị

s/he is a liar

shi

gánáshîiyani

anxious

shi

gárawashị

goat

shi

gúshịkuya

s/he is beating it repeatedly

shi

kʾàishị

his/her belongings]

shi

adâushị

cooking pot

shi

sáamʾáakûishiya

I am holding it (a handful)

shi

shína

flea, louse

shi

shíiʾipạ

variety of greens

shi

shínʾashínʾakʾa

crackers

shu

dzaʾàutụshụ

they are afraid

shu

gàishụpạ

his/her hip

shu

shúkʾu

corner

shu

àasrpanashumʾénʾi

shampoo

shu

shúumv́vtsị

graveyard

shu

shúwimi

turquoise

shv

bv́inʾîishṿ

further west

shv

ishv̂vyʾa

left hand

shv

kaʾáshṿ

his/her knee

shv

pishv́vná

purple

shv

shv́srṿ

medicinal plant

shv

tsʾénashṿ

it is tender, sore

shv

tsʾìishṿ

his/her nose

shv

tsîishṿtyạ

it has a tail

The sound sr:  sra, sru, srv  or  sraa, sruu, srvv

This is similar to the English shr in shred, shriek, shrewd. Note that no “retroflex” sound, can be followed by the vowels e or i, so sre and sri are impossible syllables in Acoma.

sra

dzàisrạ

his/her field

sra

dzíusrá

s/he is pleased with it

sra

asráni

wheat

sra

kʾáwásrâanʾai

afterbirth

sra

kísrátʾa

s/he is fat

sra

sráamíi

right, correct

sra

srâanáya

slow

sra

sraʾáu

enough

sru

kʾáyusrụ

chipmunk

sru

kúuwʾíibùusrụtsạ

she smells it

sru

nénaatụsrú

you will mature

sru

srúnvnvkạ

s/he is trembling

sru

srûutuuní

Did you know?]

sru

srûuwi

snake

sru

sruwéeʾéesrụ

right away, at once

sru

úwásrụdyaanʾi

mowing machine

srv

âi srv́yáná

around (as in walking about

srv

sái dzíi dyúwatrṿsrṿ

s/he mixed it all up

srv

shv́srṿ

osha, medicinal plant

srv

srv́tsị

it is raw

srv

chisrv́nvtsạ

s/he shivered

srv

chíyûukʾamisrṿtyṿ

are you (dl) waiting?

The sound s’: s’a, s’e, s’i, s’u or s’aa, s’ee, s’ii, s’uu

This is the glottal s, i.e. the Acoma s with a slight pop. What is said about the sound s above is also true for the glottal sound sʾ, with the extra complication, as Miller (1965:13) puts it: “The /sʾ/ is difficult to distinguish from the /s/ because the glottalization is embedded in the theta offglide.” And indeed it takes some practice to distinguish the s (IPA [ʃθ]) from the glottalized sʾ (IPA [ʃθ̉]). The syllables s’a, s’i, and s’u are very rare in the middle of a word, and s’e does not appear to occur at all in the middle of a word. The syllable s’u does not occur word-finally. There are no words with the syllable s’v.

s'a

hêe sʾá

that is mine

s'a

áníumʾée sʾâamʾa

I have a nice house

s'a

kawâayu sʾadyá

I have a horse

s'a

sʾasháakʾu

I have a pipe

s'a

úwísʾáakʾayawi

toilet paper

s'a

sʾáanʾikui

I bathe

s'e

sʾêekạ

necessary

s'e

sʾéetsịkuya

I told him/her

s'e

sʾétyu kutâanʾitrạ

she worked all day long]

s'e

wáasʾé

I spilled it

s'e

sʾeyʾáashʾáawàatsịtạ

I whispered

s'e

wákạsʾé

I spilled it, threw it away

s'i

âisʾí

I am /was there

s'i

sʾídyá

I caught it

s'i

sʾíidra

wish, hope

s'i

sʾîimʾúuchʾa

my lip

s'i

sʾiwʾâakàayá

I combed it

s’u

sʾútsʾáyáwá

I got mad

s’u

sʾuwʾâakàayá

I combed (my own hair)

s’u

sʾuyʾâasịtrạ

I stacked it

The sound sh’: sh’a, sh’e, sh’i, sh’u, sh’v  or  sh’aa, sh’ee, sh’ii, sh’uu, sh’vv

This is the glottal sh, i.e. the Acoma sh with a slight pop. There appear to be no cases of word-initial or word-final shʾe-, and the syllable shʾv is very rare.

sh'a

îikʾashʾa

sinew

sh'a

ípịshʾa

kind of white paint

sh'a

kʾâabáshʾa

s/he chewed

sh'a

píshʾatsị

it is flat

sh'a

sʾéishʾáwvtsaní

I cracked nuts for him/her

sh'a

shʾápṿkạ

evening, twilight

sh'a

shʾátị

grasshopper

sh'a

sʾeyʾáashʾáawàatsịtạ

I whispered

sh'a

shâasrkʾa

roadrunner

sh'e

gâushʾéeyʾutsị

his/her voice is hoarse

sh'e

gúushʾêetsạ

s/he started crying (#3231)

sh'e

sʾidîishʾéetạ

s/he is feeding him/her (#8017)

sh'i

híishʾi

sunflower

sh'i

kushʾí

s/he has diarrhea

sh'i

shʾídìitạ

star

sh'i

shʾísa

six

sh'i

châushʾîitsạ

s/he bowwed it

sh'i

wʾàashʾíinʾi

cedar bark

sh'i

chʾúushʾíinʾatsạ

to crunch

sh'u

háashʾúwimi

shoe

sh'u

kʾashʾûutrụtsạ

it is hot (of a fire)

sh'u

kʾáushʾúutsị

his/her throat or windpipe

sh'u

shʾúukạ

s/he swallowed it

The sound sr’: sr’a, sr’u  or  sr’aa, sr’uu

This is the glottal sr, i.e. the Acoma sr with a slight pop. Note that no “retroflex” sound, can be followed by the vowels e or i, so sr’e and sr’i are impossible syllables in Acoma. There are no words with the syllable sr’v, and there appear to be no words ending in the syllable -sr’u.

sr'u

kâusrʾúwitsạ

s/he bent it

sr'u

pímâasrʾùutsạ

explain!, inform!

sr’a

dyáyʾasrʾátrạ

s/he named them

sr’a

îisrʾa

porcupine

sr’a

mâasrʾaadzá

clear, bright]

sr’a

srʾáwʾútsị

it is not ripe yet

sr’a

wâasrʾátsị

it is soft